American strategy towards Iraq in Obama's second term between fixed and variable (2013-2016)
- American strategy,
- Obama administration,
- US administration
Copyright (c) 2019 IOR Press
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The Obama administration repeated that its promise to withdraw from Iraq on time was one of its most important achievements in the first presidential term. In fact, this withdrawal was within a broader and broader context that began to emerge in Obama's second term: withdrawal from the Middle East, In the so-called Asia "Rebalance", but the growing international chaos and the explosion of many crises in the face of the US administration such as the Syrian crisis and Iraq, especially after the so-called Arab Spring revolutions, cast a shadow over the region, and turning Iraq from the success story of the Obama administration and a benchmark for its achievements in foreign policy, a story Failure and a standard of confusion in foreign policy, and critics of the Obama administration, the American withdrawal "arbitrary" created a vacuum in Iraq filled by the opponents of the United States and lose control, or at least affect the course of the arena, both at the level of local players or regional.
- D. A. Nash, The Life-Long Learning Imperative... Ends and Mean, Journal of Dental Education, 58 (1994), 785-790.
- B. Csapo, J. Funke, (2017) The Nature of Problem Solving: Using Research to Inspire 21st Century Learning, OECD Publishing, Paris.
- M. Binkley, O. Erstad, J. Herman, S. Raizen, M. Ripley, M. Miller-Ricci, M. Rumble, (2012). Defining Twenty-First Century Skills. In P. Griffin, B. McGaw, & E. Care (Eds.), Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills, Springer Netherlands, 17-66.
- R. E. Mayer (2013) Problem Solving, The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Psychology, Oxford University Press, UK.
- J. Kirkley, (2003) Principles for Teaching Problem Solving, Plato Learning, Indiana University.
- R. E. Mayer, (2003) Learning and instruction, Upper Saddle River, Prentice Hall, NJ.
- K. Duncker, (1945) On problem solving. Psychological Monographs, (58) American Psychological Association.
- J. Funke, (2003). ProblemlösendesDenken [Problem Solving Thinking]. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.
- J. Garofalo, F. Lester, Metacognition, cognitive monitoring, and mathematical performance, Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 16 (1985) 163-176.
- R. E. Mayer, (1992) Thinking, problem solving, cognition (2nd Ed). Freeman, New York.
- R. E. Mayer, & M. C. Wittrock, (2006) Problem solving. In P. A. Alexander & P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology, 287-303. Mahwah, Lawrence Erlbaum, NJ.
- N. Zhong, Y. Wang, & V. Chiew, On the cognitive process of human problem solving, Cognitive Systems Research, 11(2010) 81-92.
- L. Kucukahmet, (1998) Principles and methods of teaching, Alkum Publications, Istanbul.
- A. Gursoy, (2006) Education programs and teaching, University Bookstore Publications, Gozdem Offset, Ankara. 232.
- OECD (2014) PISA 2012 Results: Creative Problem Solving Students’ skills in tackling real-life problems (Volume V), PISA, OECD Publishing.
- R. Millar, (1994) What is “scientific method” and can it be taught? In R. Levinson (Ed.), Teaching Science, Routledge, London. (164-177).
- J. Johnston, (2011) Early explorations in science, Open University Press, Maidenhead, England.
- G. Grambo, The art and science of observation, Gifted Child Today Magazine, 17 (1994) 32-33.
- C. Macro, & D. McFall, Questions and questioning: Working with young children, Primary Science Review, 83 (2004) 4-6.
- G. E. Friedlaender, & L. K Friedlaender, Art in Science: Enhancing Observational Skills, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 471 (2013) 2065-2067.
- P. SimSek, & F. Kabapinar, The effects of inquiry-based learning on students’ conceptual understanding of matter, scientific process skills and science attitudes, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2 (2010) 1190-1194.
- J. S. Johnston, What Does the Skill of Observation Look Like in Young Children? International Journal of Science Education, 31 (2009) 2511-2525.
- J.R. Watson, A. Goldsworthy & V. Wood-Robinson, What is not fair with investigations? School Science Review, 80 (1999) 101-106.
- S. P. Tomkins, & S. D. Tunnicliffe, Looking for ideas: observation, interpretation and hypothesis-making by 12-year-old pupils undertaking science investigations. International Journal of Science Education, 23 (2001) 791-813.
- E. M. Stone, Guiding Students to Develop an Understanding of Scientific Inquiry: A Science Skills Approach to Instruction and Assessment, CBE Life Sciences Education, 13 (2014) 90-101.
- S. Karamustafaoglu, Improving the Science Process Skills Ability of Science Student Teachers, Eurasian Journal of Physics and Chemistry Education, 3(2011) 26-38.
- B. Eilam, Phases of learning: ninth graders' skill acquisition. Research in Science and Technological Education, 20 (2002) 5-24.
- W. Harlen, & D. Symington, (1987) Helping children to observe. In W. Harlen (Ed.), Primary science: Taking the plunge, Heinemann, London. 21-35.
- Pacific Policy Research Center (2010) 21st Century Skills for Students and Teachers. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools, Research & Evaluation Division.
- B. Trilling, & C. Fadel, (2009) 21st Century Learning Skills. San Francisco, John Wiley & Sons, CA.
- SlaĿanaŽivkoviĿ, A Model of Critical Thinking as an Important Attribute for Success in the 21st Century, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 232 (2016) 102-108.
- S. Cottrell, (2005) Critical Thinking Skills Developing Effective Analysis and Argument, Palgrave MacMillan, NY.
- P. A. Facione, (2011) Ctitical Thinking: What it is and Why it Counts, Measured Reasons and The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA.
- Falcoine, P. A. (1990). Critical Thinking: A Statement of Expert Consensus for Purposes of Educational Assessment and Instruction. Research Findings and Recommendations. The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA.
- Bialik, M., & Fadel, C. (2015). Skills for the 21st Century: What should students Learn? Centre for Curriculum Redesign, Boston, Massachusetts.
- S. Art-in, Development of Analytical Thinking Skills among Thai University Students. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, (2017) 862-869.